What is Observer Bias in Research

Observer bias, a form of detection bias, manifests in observational studies when the individuals conducting the research subtly influence the results based on their own expectations and beliefs. It is a type of cognitive bias that can affect the objectivity of an observation, leading to inaccuracies that may invalidate the research. Observation is crucial for scientific study and activity, and as such,…

Published

What is the Dunning-kruger Effect?

The Dunning-Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which individuals overestimate their competence in a specific area, often significantly. This concept was introduced by psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger, who observed that people with limited knowledge or ability in a domain are not only prone to making errors but also lack the capability to recognize their…

Published

Illusory Correlation: How We Perceive False Connections

Illusory correlation is the process of detecting a relationship between variables (usually individuals, events, or actions) when none exists. A mistaken connection may be created because infrequent or novel occurrences are more prominent and, hence, attract one’s attention. It is different from the correlation fallacy. Key features of illusory correlation include: Implicit Assumptions: Individuals often…

Published

Survivorship Bias and Hidden Success Traps

Survivorship bias is a type of logical error that occurs when a person draws a conclusion from a set of data that includes only surviving observations or participants, disregarding those that did not make it to the end of the process. This bias, which is a form of selection bias, can lead to incorrect conclusions because the results may not accurately…

Published

What is the Serial Position Effect – Order and Primacy

The serial position effect refers to the phenomenon where an individual’s ability to recall items on a list is influenced by the item’s position within that list. Generally, items at the beginning (primacy effect) and end (recency effect) of a list are remembered more frequently than those in the middle. Primacy Effect: Items early in the list…

Published

What is Authority Bias – Expertise Influence

Authority bias is a cognitive bias that influences individuals to attribute greater accuracy to the opinion of an authority figure, regardless of the content. It is rooted in a deep-seated psychological response that equates authority with correctness. In many cases, people trust the judgments of an expert or leader, even when they have knowledge or…

Published

Fear of Loss: the Loss Aversion Bias

Loss aversion refers to the concept that people tend to prefer avoiding losses rather than acquiring gains. It is a phenomenon in which a loss has a more significant emotional impact on an individual than an equivalent amount of gain. The anguish of loss is thought to be psychologically twice as powerful as the pleasure of…

Published

What is Attribute Substitution

Attribute substitution is a cognitive process in which an individual replaces a complex, difficult-to-assess attribute with a simpler, more readily available heuristic one. This is a psychological process thought to underlie a number of cognitive biases and play a significant role in the field of psychology and decision-making theory. This substitution is believed to happen in the automatic intuitive judgment system,…

Published

Cognitive Restructuring vs Cognitive Reframing

Cognitive restructuring involves identifying and challenging irrational or maladaptive thoughts. The process is therapeutic and analytical, requiring individuals to examine the evidence for and against their thoughts, question their validity, and then replace them with more balanced and realistic ones. For example, cognitive restructuring is a key element within traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy that helps to modify…

Published