Researchers Identify Key Proteins For The Repair Of Nerve Fibers

Actin Turnover Promotes Axon Regeneration
A group of proteins that help to regenerate damaged nerve cells has been identified by scientists at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE). It is commonly accepted that neurons of the central nervous system shut down their ability to grow when they no longer need it; this occurs normally after they have found their …

Activin A, Follistatin May Be Key To Restore Damaged Sound-detecting Cells In The Ear

Activin A and follistatin
Using genetic tools in mice, researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine say they have identified a pair of proteins that precisely control when sound-detecting cells, known as hair cells, are born in the mammalian inner ear. The proteins may hold a key to future therapies to restore hearing in people with irreversible deafness. "Scientists in our …

General Knowledge Level Is Associated With Structural Brain Network Connectivity

Neural Architecture of General Knowledge
An individual's level of general knowledge is associated with structural brain network connectivity, neuroscientists at Ruhr-Universität Bochum and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin have shown. "Although we can precisely measure the general knowledge of people, and this wealth of knowledge is very important for an individual's journey through life, we currently know little about the links between …

Neurocognitive Basis For Free Will Set Out For The First Time

empathy
Do human beings genuinely have free will? Philosophers and theologians have wrestled with this question for centuries and have set out the 'design features' of free will — but how do our brains actually fulfil them? A University of Warwick academic has answered this question for the first time in a new paper. Professor Thomas …

Noradrenaline Reconfigures Functional Brain Connections During Stress

stress
Selective release of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline reconfigures communication between large-scale networks in the brain, researchers at ETH Zurich have shown for the first time. The findings bring insight into speedy neural processes that happen in the brain in stressful situations. In moments of acute stress — for example, a life-threatening situation in road traffic — …

Nociceptin Neurons Become Active Before Loss Of Motivation

viral loneliness
What happens when we give up? Inside the brain, a group of cells known as nociceptin neurons get very active before a mouse's breakpoint. They emit nociceptin, a complex molecule that suppresses dopamine, a chemical largely associated with motivation. The findings offer new insight into the complex world of motivation and reward. The nociceptin neurons …