Evidence that a common neurotransmitter can selectively regulate the excitability of neurons has been uncovered by an international research collaboration. The researchers were investigating gamma-aminobutyric acid, known as GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human brain. “We were using computer models from the Blue Brain Project, which predicted that GABA could be having two… Read more

Functional neuroanatomy can vary greatly among kids, and is refined during development, a new study shows[1]. The study — which used machine learning techniques to analyze the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of nearly 700 children, adolescents, and young adults – was conducted by researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University… Read more

Most scientists who study the brain believe that memories are stored through networks of synapses, or connections that form between neurons. Learning takes place as neurons form new connections and strengthen or weaken existing ones, giving the brain its so-called synaptic plasticity. There is growing evidence, however, that the intrinsic, built-in properties of the cells… Read more

A new paper argues that there are at least nine directions of brain-gender variation. The terminology humans have conceived to explain and study our own brain may be mis-aligned with how these constructs are actually represented in nature. For example, in many human societies, when a baby is born either a “male” or a “female”… Read more

Repeats in the gene that causes Fragile X Syndrome normally regulate how and when proteins are made in neurons, a University of Michigan team has found. The process may be important for learning and memory in these nerve cells and potentially in people. “The repeats function like a switch, slowing down protein production and then… Read more