How Neurons Adjust Excitation-Inhibition Balance Unaided

A mechanism by which neurons can regulate their sensitivity to incoming signals autonomously has been discovered in a new study led by the University of Bonn. The researchers, including those from the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases and the Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology of Behavior, investigated pyramidal neurons – nerve cells that also play…

Transcranial Photobiomodulation Enhances Short Term Memory

A new study found that transcranial photobiomodulation, a type of laser light therapy, improved short-term memory. Scientists from the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom and Beijing Normal University in China demonstrated that the non-invasive therapy could improve people’s short-term or working memory by up to 25%. The right prefrontal cortex of the brain…

Parenchymal Border Macrophages May Help Clear Brain Toxic Waste

Many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and others, are characterized by damaged groups of proteins in the brain. Although they have made significant efforts, scientists have only partially succeeded in finding treatments for these conditions by wiping away these toxic clusters. Now, scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have discovered…

Medulla Oblongata Function and Location

The medulla oblongata or simply medulla is a long stem-shaped brain structure which comprises the lower section of the brainstem. It is in front of and partly under the cerebellum. The cardiac, respiratory, vomiting and vasomotor nerve centers are contained in the medulla. Consequently, it handles the autonomic functions of breathing, heart rate and blood…

Having Bad Dreams Could Be Early Parkinson’s Disease Sign

In a group of older men, individuals having frequent bad dreams were twice as likely to be later diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease as those who did not, new research from University of Birmingham reports. Although it can be really beneficial to diagnose Parkinson’s disease early, there are very few risk indicators and many of these…

Adult Neuron Growth From Optogenetic Stimulation

Researchers at University of North Carolina School of Medicine have zeroed in on a specific kind of neuron in mice to increase the production of neural stem cells and spur on the creation of new adult neurons. Targeting these cells modulated memory retrieval and altered anxiety-like behaviors in mice, their study1 details. Targeting the hypothalamic…

A Bigger Striatum Is More Likely Among Psychopaths

The striatum, a region of the forebrain, was on average 10% larger in psychopathic individuals compared to a control group of individuals that had low or no psychopathic traits, in a new study1. Previous studies have pointed to an overly active striatum in psychopaths but have not conclusively determined the impact of its size on…

Stress Resilience Correlates With Regional Myelin Changes In The Brain

Acute stress is associated with increased myelination of axons in areas of the brain associated with memory and emotions, recent research shows. The study1, from scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, and UC San Francisco (UCSF), represents a potential explanation for why some people are quick to recover from, and others vulnerable to traumatic…