Obedience to Authority May Depend on Physical Proximity

Scientists at SWPS University – formerly known as the Warsaw School of Social Psychology- recently investigated the causes of obedience in the famous Milgram study. They found that the experimenter’s physical proximity increases subjects’ compliance, whereas the learner’s physical proximity diminishes it. In the early 1960s, American social psychologist Stanley Milgram developed an experiment that…

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The Freeze Response – Beyond Fight or Flight

The freeze response, also known as freezing behavior, or tonic immobility, is a survival mechanism triggered by the brain in response to perceived threat, involving a sophisticated interplay between psychological and physiological factors. It stands alongside the well-documented fight or flight responses as a fundamental mode of stress reaction, although the phenomenon, while well-researched in…

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Psychological Models of Impulsivity

Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct often characterized by actions taken without forethought. It is typically regarded as a personality trait but can also be observed in various psychiatric conditions. Psychological models often emphasize the lack of behavioral inhibition as a core component of impulsivity. These models attempt to explain impulsive behavior as a failure to…

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Rothbart’s Three Dimensions of Temperament

Temperament refers to the inherent traits that determine how individuals react to the environment. These traits are biologically based and observable from early childhood. Unlike personality, which can evolve over time influenced by various life experiences, temperament remains relatively stable and consistent. Temperament qualities (such as neuroticism, sociability, impulsivity, etc.) are different patterns in behavior…

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Generativity vs Stagnation in Erikson’s Psychosocial Development

Erik Erikson introduced eight stages of psychosocial development, with generativity vs. stagnation being the seventh stage. This stage typically occurs during middle adulthood, around ages 40 to 65. Erikson believed that successful navigation through each stage leads to a healthy personality and positive psychosocial outcomes. The stages are marked by conflicts that must be resolved…

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Sensory Adaptation (Neural Adaptation)

Sensory adaptation – also known as neural adaptation) is a process that allows the sensory system to adjust to changes in the environment. This phenomenon is crucial for perception and helps prevent the brain from becoming overwhelmed by constant stimuli. Sensory neurons play a significant role in this process. When these neurons are repeatedly exposed to…

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What is Schema Therapy?

Schema therapy is a distinct and integrative therapeutic approach that was conceptualized by Dr. Jeffrey Young in the 1980s and is rooted in cognitive behavioral therapy. It integrates aspects of gestalt therapy, attachment theory, and object relations, intending to treat personality disorders and chronic mental health disorders. Schema psychotherapy aims to break the cycle of schema activation, thereby facilitating behavioral…

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The Learned Helplessness Theory of Depression

The learned helplessness theory of depression posits that pervasive experiences of failure or negative events can lead to decreased motivation and an increased risk for depression  This theory suggests that when individuals repeatedly face situations where they have no control over outcomes, they may develop a sense of helplessness that generalizes to various aspects of…

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Internal and External Locus of Control

Locus of control refers to the degree to which people believe that they have control over the outcome of events in their lives, as opposed to external forces having that control. Introduced by psychologist Julian Rotter in 1954, this concept has become a fundamental aspect of personality psychology. Rotter’s theory suggests that the way individuals perceive the source…

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