Medulla Oblongata Function and Location

The medulla oblongata or simply medulla is a long stem shaped brain structure which comprises the lower section of the brainstem. It is in front of and partly under the cerebellum. The cardiac, respiratory, vomiting and vasomotor nerve centers are contained in the medulla. Consequently, it handles the autonomic functions of breathing, heart rate and blood pressure as well as the sleep wake cycle1. Medulla oblongata location. Credit: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology, CC-BY

CRISPR/Cas9 Editing Can Cause Genome Instability And Cell Toxicity

Depending on the targeted spot of the human genome, CRISPR gene editing can give rise to cell toxicity and genomic instability, Barcelona Institute for Research in Biomedicine scientists report1. CRISPR/Cas9 is a gene editing technique whose developers were the subject of the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. This adverse effect involves the linchpin tumour suppressor protein p53; the DNA sequence near the editing point and various epigenetic factors in the surrounding region determine it.

Imposter Syndrome Is Not Related To Age Or Gender

Have you ever felt that any success you are having is random, and is only because of some external circumstances or just luck? You may have what is called imposter syndrome and you are not alone. People who systematically underestimate themselves and their own performance live in constant fear that their “deception” will be exposed. A new study1 shows for the first time that even under real-life conditions the phenomenon happens, and it happens regardless of age, gender, and intelligence.

Having Bad Dreams Could Be Early Parkinson's Disease Sign

In a group of older men, individuals having frequent bad dreams were twice as likely to be later diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease as those who did not, new research from University of Birmingham reports. Although it can be really beneficial to diagnose Parkinson’s disease early, there are very few risk indicators and many of these require expensive hospital tests or are very common and non-specific, such as diabetes, said Dr Abidemi Otaiku, of the University’s Centre for Human Brain Health, lead author of the study1.

Adult Neuron Growth From Optogenetic Stimulation

Researchers at University of North Carolina School of Medicine have zeroed in on a specific kind of neuron in mice to increase the production of neural stem cells and spur on the creation of new adult neurons. Targeting these cells modulated memory retrieval and altered anxiety-like behaviors in mice, their study1 details. Targeting the hypothalamic neurons to enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis will not only benefit brain functions, but also holds the potential to treat cognitive and affective deficits associated with various brain disorders,

Anti-inflammatory Drugs Linked With Increased Risk Of Chronic Pain

Use of steroids and anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief could raise the chances of developing chronic pain, new research from McGill University and colleagues in Italy suggests. The findings bring questions for conventional practices used to treat pain, of which chronic low back pain is the most commonly reported chronic pain condition. For many decades it’s been standard medical practice to treat pain with anti-inflammatory drugs. But we found that this short-term fix could lead to longer-term problems,

A Bigger Striatum Is More Likely Among Psychopaths

The striatum, a region of the forebrain, was on average 10% larger in psychopathic individuals compared to a control group of individuals that had low or no psychopathic traits, in a new study1. Previous studies have pointed to an overly active striatum in psychopaths but have not conclusively determined the impact of its size on behaviors. Our study’s results help advance our knowledge about what underlies antisocial behavior such as psychopathy.

Stress Resilience Correlates With Regional Myelin Changes In The Brain

Acute stress is associated with increased myelination of axons in areas of the brain associated with memory and emotions, recent research shows. The study1, from scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, and UC San Francisco (UCSF), represents a potential explanation for why some people are quick to recover from, and others vulnerable to traumatic stress, and for the varied symptoms - avoidance behavior, anxiety and fear, for example - triggered by the memory of such stress.