How The Spatial Contexts Of Memories Are Geo-tagged In Our Brains

Brain cells which encode spatial information form “geotags” for specific memories are activated immediately before those memories are recalled, a team of neuroscientists from the University of Pennsylvania and Freiburg University has found. This work shows how spatial information is incorporated into memories, and why remembering an experience can quickly bring to mind other events…

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Amygdala Size And Connectivity Linked To Childhood Anxiety

Risk factors in children for developing anxiety disorders and depression as adults include prolonged stress and anxiety, both in themselves, and in their mother. Now, the degree of anxiety a young child is experiencing in daily life can be indicated by measuring the size and connectivity of the amygdala, a part of the brain associated…

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Eating Sweets Forms Memories That May Control Eating Habits

Eating sweet foods causes the brain to form a memory of a meal, according to researchers at Georgia State University, Georgia Regents University and Charlie Norwood VA Medical Center. The findings show that neurons in the dorsal hippocampus, the part of the brain that is critical for episodic memory, are activated by consuming sweets. Episodic…

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How Do We See Color?

Our brains are inference engines. Visual perception is just one great example of how our brains infer and synthesize information based on ambiguous and limited input. When we look at the world around us, rarely are we seeing objects in their entirety. Usually we only see parts of them. This is because some sections may…

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Brain’s Decision Making Algorithms Decoded

“Truly successful decision-making relies on a balance between deliberate and instinctive thinking.” ― Malcolm Gladwell It is still a young field, but research in decision neuroscience has skyrocketed in the last decade. Scientists are beginning to decipher precisely what is happening in our brains when we are making choices, whether they be big or small.…

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Researchers Track Individual Neurons during Learning and Memory Recall

Neurobiologists at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) in Vienna were able to track single neurons in the brain of mice over extended time periods. Advanced imaging techniques allowed them to pinpoint the processes during memory formation and recall. Oscar Wilde wrote that “Memory is the diary that we all carry about with us”.…

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What Are Schwann Cells?

Schwann cells or neurolemmocytes are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). They were named after physiologist Theodor Schwann. Glial cells function to support neurons and in the PNS, also include satellite cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia and glia that reside at sensory nerve endings, such as the Pacinian corpuscle. There are…

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Microglia Definition

Microglia, also known as Microgliocytes, Gitter cells, or Hortega Cells, are a type of glial cell located throughout the brain and spinal cord. Microglia account for 10–15% of all cells found within the brain. As the resident macrophage cells, they act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous…

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First Steps toward a Neuroscience of Consciousness

“The brain is a complex system, but that doesn’t mean it’s incomprehensible. Our neural circuits were carved by natural selection to solve problems that our ancestors faced during our species’ evolutionary history. Your brain has been molded by evolutionary pressures just as your spleen and eyes have been. And so has your consciousness. Consciousness developed…

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