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Astrocytes May Play Key Role In Regulation Of ADHD

Astrocytes, previously thought to provide mainly nourishment and housekeeping functions for neurons, may play a key role in the regulation of attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity, a new UCLA study suggests. “Unmasking how astrocytes contribute to brain function is one of the most important open questions in neuroscience. We have made some progress, but our […]

Neuron-derived Estrogen Has Role In Regulating Synaptic Plasticity

Estrogen in the brain is important to keep neurons communicating and memories being made, new research indicates. Neurons in both males and females make estrogen and the scientists have shown that when they don’t, their brains have significantly less dense spines and synapses — both key communication points for neurons — in the biggest part […]

Multidisciplinary Study Looks At Effects Of Environmental Factors On Astrocytes

Investigators from Brigham and Women’s Hospital have developed an approach to systematically and simultaneously evaluate the effects of hundreds of environmental factors on the development of neurological diseases. Through a series of investigations, the team has identified environmental factors that boost neurological inflammation, including an herbicide being used in the U.S. that is currently banned […]

Nestin Has Key Role In Inhibiting Neuronal Differentiation

A novel and unexpected function of nestin, the best known marker of neural stem cells, has been uncovered by researchers at Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, in collaboration with research groups in Finland, Canada, and Slovenia. In the developing brain, the 3 main cell types, specifically neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, are generated from […]

Astrocytes Reversibly Regulate Myelin Sheath Thickness

Astrocytes alter the transmission speed of neurons by changing the thickness of myelin, an insulation material, and the width of gaps in myelin called nodes of Ranvier, which amplify signals, new research indicates. The transmission speed of neurons fluctuates in the brain to achieve an optimal flow of information required for day-to-day activities. “Scientists used […]