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Does Osteocalcin, Not Adrenaline, Drive Fight Or Flight Response?

The “fight or flight” response, is commonly believed to be triggered in part by the hormone adrenaline. But a new study[1] from researchers at Columbia University suggests that bony vertebrates are not able to produce this response to danger without the skeleton. The researchers found in mice and humans that almost immediately after the brain […]

Transparent 3-D-printed Skull Implant For Monitoring Cortical Regions

A 3-D-printed transparent skull implant for mice that allows for a chance to watch activity of the entire brain surface in real time has been developed by University of Minnesota researchers. The device, which they have named See-Shell, enables fundamental brain research that could result in new insight for human brain conditions such as concussions, […]

Dopamine Neuron Activity Is Key To Conditioned Fear Extinction

When a feared outcome does not happen, activity in midbrain dopaminergic neurons is required to get rid of behavioral fear responses, researchers at the RIKEN Center for Brain Science have found. Their study study details the role of dopamine in ensuring that rats lose fear response in the prolonged absence of the stimulus. Like animals, […]

Confused Memories Help Explain Conformity

Behavioral conformity has been extensively studied. It is typically explained in terms of social pressure or impact. Surprisingly, though, recent research by Leiden University psychologists Diana Kim and Bernhard Hommel suggests that social factors may not be necessary to produce or explain conformity. According to their study people may simply confuse memories of their own […]