More Evidence For Link Between Type II Diabetes And Alzheimer's

Chronic hyperglycemia impairs working memory performance and alters fundamental aspects of working memory networks, a new study1 shows. The finding, from a team of University of Nevada, Las Vegas neuroscientists has strengthened the link between Type II diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. Diabetes is a major risk factor for developing Alzheimer’s disease, but it is not clear why. We show that a central feature of diabetes, hyperglycemia, impairs neural activity in ways that are similar to what is observed in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease models.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Formation of Verbal Memory

Low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left prefrontal cortex of the brain can improve memory performance by reducing the power of low frequency brain waves as memories form, new research1 shows. Memories of past events and experiences are what define us as who we are, and yet the ability to form these episodic memories declines with age, certain dementias, and brain injury. Experimental design. Arrows on brain model indicate stimulation site (DLPFC = purple, vertex = orange).

Epigenetics And Cerebral Cortex Interneuron Diversity

Molecular and genetic factors that let two types of interneurons develop different identities have been found by researchers at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and the Flatiron Institute. The findings1 could provide a model for studying the emergence of cellular diversity in the brain. Since many neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders affect different cell types, including interneurons, differently, the authors say their work could also help researchers better understand how these disorders come about.

Alpha Synuclein Is Transferred Between Microglia Through Tunneling Nanotubes

To degrade toxic proteins more rapidly, immune cells in the brain can join together to form networks when needed, a joint study of the University of Bonn, the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) and the Institut François Jacob in France shows1. However, in certain mutations that can cause Parkinson’s disease, this cooperation is impaired. The protein alpha-synuclein performs important tasks in the nerve cells of the brain. But under certain circumstances, alpha-synuclein (aSyn) molecules can clump together and form insoluble aggregates.

Azithromycin Reduces Premature Births and Low Birth Weight

The antibiotic azithromycin reduced low birth weight and prematurity in Africa and Asia but didn’t lower infant deaths, infections or hospital admissions, a research review1 has found. In a systematic review and meta-analysis, researchers led by the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute (MCRI) reviewed 14 studies undertaken in African and Asian countries, involving 17,594 participants. This review found that there was uncertainty about the potential benefits of this intervention on neonatal deaths, admissions and infections, and potential harmful effects on stillbirth despite biological reasons why this intervention may have benefits for these outcomes.

Amyloids From The Liver May Cause Alzheimer’s Disease In The Brain

Amyloid protein produced in the liver can cause neurodegeneration in brain tissue, a new study1 by John Mamo of Curtin University, and colleagues has found. Since the protein is thought to be a key contributor to development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the results suggest that the liver may play an important role in the onset or progression of the disease. Deposits of amyloid beta (A-beta) in the brain are one of the pathological hallmarks of AD and are implicated in neurodegeneration in both human patients and animal models of the disease.

ADHD Linked To Dementia Risk Across Generations

Parents and grandparents of individuals with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were at higher risk of dementia than those with children and grandchildren without ADHD, a large study1 at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden has found. The findings suggest that there are common genetic and/or environmental contributions to the association between ADHD and dementia. Now we need further studies to understand the underlying mechanisms," said first author Le Zhang, Ph.D. student at the Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics at Karolinska Institutet.

ModTect Software Uncovers Epitranscriptome Dysregulation Across Multiple Cancer Types

Researchers from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore (CSI Singapore) have developed a software program - called ModTect - that can help reveal the relationships between RNA modifications and the development of diseases and disorders. Led by Professor Daniel Tenen and Dr Henry Yang, the scientists carried out their own novel pan-cancer study1 covering 33 different cancer types. This work is one of few studies demonstrating the association of mRNA modification with cancer development.