EGFL8 Signaling Molecule Stops Malignant Neuroblastoma Tumors

The uncontrolled growth of benign neuroblastomas is stopped by a signal molecule produced by Schwann cells present within these tumors, new research has found. This naturally occuring “brake” also works on malignant neuroblastoma cultures, according to scientists at St. Anna Children’s Cancer Research Institute. Together with colleagues from the Medical University of Vienna and the University of Vienna (Faculty of Chemistry), they authored the study1 describing for the first time the function of this signal molecule —not only in tumors, but also in injured nerve fibers.

What Is Calicheamicin?

The calicheamicins are a class of enediyne antitumor antibiotics derived from the bacterium Micromonospora echinospora, with calicheamicin γ1 being the most notable. It was isolated originally in the mid-1980s from the chalky soil, or “caliche pits”, located in Kerrville, Texas. The sample was collected by a scientist employed by Lederle Labs (now part of Pfizer) while on vacation1. Calicheamicin γ1 is extremely toxic to all cells and, in 2000, a CD33 antigen-targeted immunoconjugate N-acetyl dimethyl hydrazide calicheamicin was developed and marketed as targeted therapy against the non-solid tumor cancer acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Toddlers With Erratic Sleep Patterns Have Higher Body Mass Index

New research from University of Delaware links inconsistent sleep times to higher body mass index (BMI) percentiles. The findings suggest sleep may help explain the association between household poverty and BMI. We’ve known for a while that physical activity and diet quality are very strong predictors of weight and BMI. I think it’s really highlighting that sleep may be playing a bigger role here than it’s been given credit for,

Prolonged Medically Induced Coma Alters Brain Connectivity

Prolonged anesthesia significantly alters the synaptic architecture of the brain regardless of age, according to new research. Prolonged anesthesia, also known as medically induced coma, is a life-saving procedure carried out across the globe on millions of patients in intensive medical care units every year. Unfortunately, after this type of coma, which takes the brain to a state of unconsciousness deeper than short-term anesthesia for surgical procedures, it is common for family members to report that after hospital discharge their loved ones were not quite the same.

What Is Molecularly Targeted Therapy?

Molecularly targeted therapy, or targeted therapy, is one of the major modalities of medical treatment for cancer, others being hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy. As a form of molecular medicine, targeted therapy blocks the growth of cancer cells by interfering with specific targeted molecules needed for carcinogenesis and tumor growth, rather than by simply interfering with all rapidly dividing cells (e.g. with traditional chemotherapy). Because most agents for targeted therapy are biopharmaceuticals, the term biologic therapy is sometimes synonymous with targeted therapy when used in the context of cancer therapy (and thus distinguished from chemotherapy, that is, cytotoxic therapy).

Hippocampus Place Cells Use Rate And Phase Code For Route Finding

Pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus inscribe spatial information using two interchangeable information processing methods referred to as a rate code and a phase code, that can be roughly compared to the number and spatial arrangement of bar codes, The Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) reports. The research team, led by Sebastien Royer at KIST Brain Science Institute (BSI), in collaboration with a research team at New York University (NYU), also found that parallel neural circuits and information processing mechanisms are used depending on the complexity of the landmarks along the path.

What Is Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans?

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare locally aggressive malignant cutaneous soft-tissue sarcoma. DFSP develops in the connective tissue cells in the middle layer of the skin (dermis). Estimates of the overall occurrence of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in the United States are 0.8 to 4.5 cases per million persons per year. In the United States, DFSP accounts for between 1 and 6 percent of all soft tissue sarcomas and 18 percent of all cutaneous soft tissue sarcomas.

Decoding Vision With High-density Diffuse Optical Tomography Brain Imaging

New research shows that light can be used to detect what is going on inside someone’s head and identify what image they are seeing. The study1 demonstrates that high-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) - a noninvasive, wearable, light-based brain imaging technology - is sufficiently sensitive and precise to be potentially useful in applications such as augmented communication that are not well suited to other imaging methods. MRI could be used for decoding, but it requires a scanner, and you can’t expect someone to go lie in a scanner every time they want to communicate.