What Is Fibrinogen

Fibrinogen (factor I) is a glycoprotein complex that circulates in the blood of vertebrates. During tissue and vascular injury it is converted enzymatically by thrombin to fibrin and then to a fibrin-based blood clot. Fibrin clots function primarily to occlude blood vessels to stop bleeding. Fibrin also binds and reduces the activity of thrombin. This…

What Are Randomized Controlled Trials?

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of scientific experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment. The people participating in the trial are randomly allocated to either the group receiving the treatment under investigation or to a group receiving standard treatment (or placebo treatment) as the control. Randomization minimises selection…

What is a Spleen?

What organ located in the human body below the rib cage an in the upper left part of the abdomen is as big as your fist? The answer is your spleen, as you probably guessed based on the title. Your spleen has a pretty important role to play in your body and is part of…

What Is A Cohort Study?

A cohort study is a particular form of longitudinal study that sample a cohort (a group of people who share a defining characteristic, typically those who experienced a common event in a selected period, such as birth or graduation), performing a cross-section at intervals through time. While a cohort study is a panel study, a…

Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Targets Cancer

Medical researchers at Penn State University have developed a nontoxic nanoparticle they say is an all-around effective delivery system for both therapeutic drugs and the fluorescent dyes that can track their delivery. The calcium phosphate particles, ranging in size from 20 to 50 nanometers, have been shown to successfully enter cells and dissolve harmlessly, releasing…

What are Anticholinergics?

Anticholinergic drugs slow the activity of the stomach and intestinal tract, thus reducing the likelihood of cramping and also reducing acid secretion. This drug also decreases or completely stops contractions occurring in the bladder and the ability of the bladder to work to its optimum best is increased. Anticholinergics often are sold under the names…

Psychological Models of Stress

There are various models of stress that are continually studied by psychologists around the world. The two most common models are the psychosomatic stress model and the diathesis stress model. Psychosomatic Psychosomatic stress is the type of stress where the connection between mind and body is strengthened. Specifically speaking, you either develop a disease or…

Calculating BMI

Before we start calculating BMI, let’s discuss what BMI is, and what it isn’t. BMI, or the body mass index, is a tool that’s used to determine whether or not a person is at a normal weight for his or her height. It was invented between 1830 and 1850 by mathematician and scientist Adolphe Quetelet.…