What Is A Case-control Study?

A case-control study is a type of observational study in which two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared on the basis of some supposed causal attribute. Case-control studies are often used to identify factors that may contribute to a medical condition by comparing subjects who have that condition/disease (the “cases”) with patients…

What Is A Cross-sectional Study?

A cross-sectional study, also known as a cross-sectional analysis, or transversal study, is a type of observational study that analyzes data collected from a population, or a representative subset, at a specific point in time, that is, cross-sectional data. Cross-sectional studies differ from case-control studies in that they aim to provide data on the entire…

What is the Amygdala?

The amygdalae (singular: amygdala; /əˈmɪɡdələ/; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin, from Greek ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, ‘almond’, ’tonsil’), listed in the Gray’s Anatomy textbook as the nucleus amygdalæ, are two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans. Shown in research to perform a primary role…

Vasopressin

Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a neurohypophysial hormone found in most mammals. In most species it contains arginine and is thus also called arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin. Its two primary functions are to retain water in the body and to constrict blood vessels. Vasopressin regulates the body’s retention of water by…

Autonomic Nervous System Definition

The term autonomic nervous system (ANS) refers to collections of motor neurons (ganglia) situated in the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis, and to the axonal connections of these neurons. Autonomic pathways, together with somatic motor pathways to skeletal muscle and neuroendocrine pathways, are the means whereby the central nervous system (CNS) sends commands to…

What is Synesthesia?

Synesthesia is a condition in which a sensory stimulus presented in one modality evokes a sensation in a different modality. In the 19th century Francis Galton observed that a certain proportion of the general population who were otherwise normal had a hereditary condition he dubbed “synesthesia”; a sensory stimulus presented through one modality spontaneously evoked…

Violence And Empathy Have Similar Brain Circuits, Research Says

A scientific review of the brain structures involved with empathy, the ability to put oneself in another person’s position has been carried out by esearchers from the University of Valencia (UV). They conclude that the brain circuits responsible for empathy are in part the same as those involved with violence. Said Luis Moya Albiol, lead…

What Is The Subthalamic Nucleus?

The subthalamic nucleus is a small lens-shaped nucleus in the brain where it is, from a functional point of view, part of the basal ganglia system. In terms of anatomy, it is the major part of the subthalamus. As suggested by its name, the subthalamic nucleus is located ventral to the thalamus. It is also…