Getting prenatal care in a group, rather than individually, can improve health outcomes for both young mothers and their babies, a new study finds.
Women who received group prenatal care were 33 percent less likely to have infants who were small for gestational age. In addition, group-care recipients had reduced risk for preterm delivery and low birthweight.
Babies born to these women also spent fewer days in the neonatal intensive care unit.
In addition, mothers with more group prenatal care visits were less likely to become pregnant again quickly after giving birth, an important outcome known as birth spacing that reduces the risk of having another baby at risk for preterm delivery. Says Jeannette R. Ickovics, the study’s lead author and professor in the Yale School of Public Health:
“Few clinical interventions have had an impact on birth outcomes.
Group prenatal care is related to improved health outcomes for mothers and babies, without adding risk. If scaled nationally, group prenatal care could lead to significant improvements in birth outcomes, health disparities, and healthcare costs.”
Lower Adverse Birth Outcomes
The team conducted a randomized controlled trial in 14 health centers in New York City, and compared the birth outcomes of women who received CenteringPregnancy Plus group prenatal care to those who received traditional individual care.
The more than 1,000 women in the study were placed in groups of 8 to 12 women at the same gestational point in their pregnancy, and were cared for by a clinician and a medical assistant. The study found that the higher the number of group visits attended, the lower the rates of adverse birth outcomes.
CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care includes the same components as individual visits, but all care (with the exception of matters that require privacy) take place in a group setting.
Group visits build in additional time for education, skill building, and the opportunity to discuss and learn from the experience of peers, as well as more face-to-face time with caregivers, say the researchers.
Group Care Model
Despite the opportunity for frequent visits, many mothers in at-risk groups, such as adolescents or those from low-income areas, still experience a high rate of negative birth outcomes. The study focused on adolescent women, ages 14 to 21, in disadvantaged areas, with no other known health risks to their pregnancies.
Going forward, researchers say, they need to identify the reasons why group sessions yielded better outcomes, whether it is the additional time for education, the built-in social support, or other factors.
Additional studies are also needed to understand what influences patients to stick to group care session schedules, and to analyze cost-effectiveness, the researchers say. Future studies could also reveal whether the positive results from this study indicate that the group care model could be broadened to include other types of patients.
Jeannette R. Ickovics, Valerie Earnshaw, Jessica B. Lewis, Trace S. Kershaw, Urania Magriples, Emily Stasko, Sharon Schindler Rising, Andrea Cassells, Shayna Cunningham, Peter Bernstein, and Jonathan N. Tobin
Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Prenatal Care: Perinatal Outcomes Among Adolescents in New York City Health Centers
American Journal of Public Health 0 0, 0, e1-e7