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What Is Cytokine Release Syndrome?

Cytokine release syndrome refers to a condition that may occur after treatment with some types of immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibodies and CAR-T cells. Cytokine release syndrome is caused by a large, rapid release of cytokines into the blood from immune cells affected by the immunotherapy. Cytokines are immune substances that have many different actions […]

What Is Motion Sickness?

Motion sickness is a condition that happens in association with travel or movement when a difference occurs between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system’s sense of bodily movement. Most kinds are considered terrestrial motion sickness, such as being carsick, airsick, seasick, or sick from reality simulation. Symptoms include dizziness, fatigue, vertigo, depressed appetite, nonspecific malaise, […]

What Are Oligodendrocytes

Oligodendrocytes (from Greek, meaning ‘cells with a few branches’), or oligodendroglia, are a type of neuroglia whose main functions are to provide support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system of some vertebrates, equivalent to the function performed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Oligodendrocytes do this by creating the myelin […]

What Is The Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex (VLPFC)

The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), part of the prefrontal cortex, is located on the inferior frontal gyrus, bounded superiorly by the inferior frontal sulcus and inferiorly by the lateral sulcus, being attributed to the anatomical structures of Brodmann’s area (BA) 47, 45 and 44 (considered the subregions of the VLPFC – the anterior, mid and […]

The Salience Network Of The Human Brain

The salience network of the human brain is a large scale brain network that is primarily composed of the anterior insula (AI) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). It is involved in detecting and filtering salient stimuli, as well as in recruiting relevant functional networks. Together with its interconnected brain networks, the salience network (SN) […]